- We advise you to exercise a high degree of caution in Thailand due to the threat of terrorist attack, particularly in the provinces of Yala, Pattani, Narathiwat and Songkhla, where we advise you not to travel. For more information on the threat of terrorist attack in Thailand, including in Bangkok, see under Safety and Security: Terrorism.
- Pay close attention to your personal security at all times and monitor the media for information about possible new safety or security risks.
- Large scale political demonstrations and related incidents in Bangkok and other parts of Thailand have occurred in recent years. You should avoid protests and political rallies, and any security deployments associated with such events.
- Carefully consider your safety and the implications of accidents if you hire a motorcycle or jet ski and seek advice on any restrictions that may apply (such as insurance cover if you are not licensed to ride a motorcycle in Australia). You should check with your travel insurer whether these activities are covered by your policy. You may be detained and arrested by police following jet ski and motorcycle accidents until compensation, often in thousands of dollars, can be negotiated between parties.
- Australian travellers continue to report harassment and threats of violence by jet ski operators on beaches across Thailand, and particularly in Phuket, Pattaya, Koh Samui and Koh Phangan.
- Tourists may be exposed to scams and more serious criminal activity in Thailand. Be aware that food and drink spiking occurs in Thailand, including around popular backpacker destinations such as Khao San Road in Bangkok the night-time entertainment zones in Bangkok, Pattaya and Phuket, and during the Full Moon Party on Koh Phangan.
- Travellers planning to attend Full Moon parties at Koh Phangan or other locations should carefully consider personal safety issues and take appropriate precautions. See our Partying Overseas page for advice on the risks you may face when attending Full Moon parties and tips on how to avoid becoming a victim.
- Penalties for drug offences are severe and include the death penalty. The possession of even small quantities of "soft drugs" for recreational purposes can result in lengthy jail sentences.
- We strongly advise you not to travel at this time to the southern provinces of Yala, Pattani, Narathiwat and Songkhla or overland to and from the Malaysian border through these provinces due to high levels of ongoing violence in these regions, including terrorist attacks and bombings that result in deaths and injuries on an almost daily basis.
- We advise you to exercise particular caution in the areas surrounding the Preah Vihear Temple (known as Khao Pra Viharn temple in Thailand) and the Ta Kwai and Ta Muen Thom temples, all on the Thailand-Cambodia border, due to the presence of unexploded ordnance. There was renewed fighting in the area in early 2011 and there continues to be a military presence in these areas.
- Be a smart traveller. Before heading overseas:
- organise comprehensive travel insurance and check what circumstances and activities are not covered by your policy. Remember that if you cannot afford travel insurance you cannot afford to travel to Thailand.
- register your travel and contact details, so we can contact you in an emergency
- subscribe to this travel advice to receive free email updates each time it’s reissued.
Entry and exit
Visa and other entry and exit conditions (such as currency, customs and quarantine regulations) change regularly. Contact the nearest Embassy or Consulate of Thailand for the most up-to-date information.
Australian tourists travelling to Thailand through one of the international airports on an Australian passport may currently enter Thailand for up to 30 days without obtaining a visa in advance. This is referred to as a “visa exemption”. Australian tourists travelling overland into Thailand through a border crossing may enter Thailand for up to 15 days without obtaining a visa in advance. A visa is required for longer stays or for travellers intending to work or to travel for other than tourism purposes in Thailand.
Thai authorities require all travellers to have at least six months validity remaining on their passports. You may be refused entry to Thailand, or may not be permitted to board your Thailand-bound flight, if your passport has less than six months validity.
The Australian Embassy cannot help you to get entry permits or visas, visa extensions or work permits for Thailand or other countries. Make sure you obtain visas, entry permits and extensions of stay from Thai immigration authorities or a Thai Embassy or Consulate.
Avoid individuals and companies advertising visa extension services, as they may stamp passports with fake or illegally obtained exit and entry stamps. Australians with illegal stamps in their passports can be arrested and jailed for up to 10 years. Thai authorities will vigorously prosecute offenders.
Overstaying your visa in Thailand is considered a very serious offence and may result in arrest and prolonged detention. Travellers who overstay entry permits may not be allowed to leave Thailand until a fine is paid. The fine is currently 500 baht per day, up to a maximum of 20,000 baht. If you cannot afford to pay the overstay fine you may be arrested, taken to court, charged with a visa offence, and required to serve a lengthy prison sentence in lieu of the fine. Travellers who have overstayed their visas may be imprisoned, deported and placed on an immigration blacklist to prevent them from returning to Thailand.
It is illegal to work without a work permit. In the past, some employers (particularly schools, fitness centres, securities telemarketers, currency traders, and other businesses) have not fulfilled promises to arrange work permits and their employees have been arrested, jailed and deported from Thailand.
Safety and security
Australians should be aware that there is a threat of terrorist attack in Thailand, including in Bangkok. We continue to receive reports that terrorists may be planning attacks against a range of targets, including locations frequented by tourists and foreigners.
Thai authorities have on a number of occasions warned of the possibility of bombings in Thailand to coincide with symbolic dates or holidays, including in Bangkok and the southern provinces.
Several explosions occurred on 14 February 2012 in the area of Sukhumvit Soi 71, Bangkok resulting in injuries to five people. Earlier, in January 2012, Thai authorities made an arrest and seized materials in Bangkok in relation to an alleged terrorist plot targeting tourist areas.
In planning your activities, consider the kinds of places known to be terrorist targets and the level of security provided. These include places frequented by foreigners such as embassies, shopping malls, markets, banks, clubs, hotels, restaurants, bars, nightclubs, schools, places of worship, outdoor recreation events, beach resorts and tourist areas. Public buildings, public transport, airports and sea ports are also potential targets for attack.
Southern provinces - Yala, Pattani, Narathiwat and Songkhla: We strongly advise you not to travel at this time to the southern provinces of Yala, Pattani, Narathiwat and Songkhla, or overland to and from the Malaysian border through these provinces due to high levels of ongoing violence in these regions. This includes travel by train between Thailand and Malaysia.
In recent years almost daily attacks, many of which have caused deaths and serious injuries, have taken place in these areas. Bombings and shootings are commonplace in these areas. Arson and beheadings have occurred. The Thai Government has warned tourists not to travel to these areas.
Australians in Yala, Pattani, Narathiwat and Songkhla provinces may be caught up in violence or terrorist attacks directed at others. If you are in these provinces, you should consider leaving. If you decide to stay in the southern provinces, you should ensure you have the appropriate personal security measures in place.
Since January 2004, there has been heightened tension in these four southern provinces, where violent incidents continue to take place. Since 2004, at least five thousand people have been killed and many more injured, including foreigners. An Australian was one of seven people injured in a bomb blast in Yala province in May 2007.
Bombings can occur in close succession and proximity in order to target those responding to the initial explosions. Over the past few years, there have been numerous instances of multiple coordinated explosions occurring across a range of locations in southern Thailand.
Attacks have occurred in locations frequented by the public. Targets have included civilians, religious or community leaders, members of the security forces, teachers, tourist hotels, bars, banks, ATMs, cinemas, entertainment venues, shops, convenience stores, markets, supermarkets, schools, places of worship, petrol stations, transport infrastructure including Hat Yai international airport and trains. Further such incidents could occur at any time.
Examples of attacks over the last 18 months include:
- On 1 May 2013, six people, including a two-year old child, were killed in a drive-by shooting of a tea shop in Pattani province.
- On 5 April 2013, the Deputy and Assistant Governers of Yala were killed in a road-side bombing in Yala province.
- On 21 March 2013, a 10-year old boy was killed and nine others injured from an explosion in front of an ice-cream shop in Pattani province.
- On 13 February 2013, security forces repelled a raid by insurgents on a marine base in Narathiwat province that left up to 19 dead. A 24 hour curfew was imposed in the surrounding area.
- On 23 January 2013, a teacher was shot dead in a school canteen in Narathiwat province.
- On 11 December 2012, four people were killed in a tea shop in Narathiwat province by armed assailants in a pick-up truck.
- On 18 November 2012, three people were killed and 36 people were injured by an IED set off on a train in Narathiwat province.
- On 20 October 2012, a person was injured when an IED exploded in a convenience store in Narathiwat province.
- On 21 September 2012, a car bomb detonated at lunchtime near a crowded market in Pattani province, killing six people and injuring over 50 others.
- On 31 August 2012, nearly 300 coordinated incidents, including some minor bombings, took place across Yala, Pattani, Narathiwat and Songkhla provinces, injuring at least eight people.
- On 31 July 2012, an IED was detonated at the rear of the CS Hotel in Pattani in Pattani province, causing five injuries.
- On 13 July 2012, three people were injured in a series of coordinated explosions at ATMs in Yala province.
- On 13 April 2012, five passengers were wounded when gunmen attacked a public bus in Pattani province.
- On 31 March 2012, coordinated attacks occurred in Songkhla, Yala and Pattani provinces. Two car bombs in Yala’s town centre killed at least nine people and injured over 100. Shortly afterwards, a car bomb killed four people, including two Malaysian tourists, and injured around 300 at a hotel and shopping mall in Hat Yai in Songkhla. An explosion outside a shop in Pattani injured six people.
Terrorism is a threat throughout the world. You can find more information about this threat in our General Advice to Australian Travellers.
Civil unrest/political tension
Large-scale political demonstrations and related incidents in Thailand over the past few years have resulted in a number of fatalities and injuries.
A number of arrests and injuries were reported following a demonstration at Royal Plaza on 24 November 2012. The Internal Security Act (ISA) was activated in three of Bangkok’s fifty districts between 22-26 November 2012.
You should avoid protests and political rallies, and security deployments associated with such events. You should monitor developments that might affect your safety in Thailand, including the possibility of further violent civil unrest and the risk of terrorism.
Thai-Cambodia border: Australians intending to visit temples along the Thai-Cambodia border should be aware of the ongoing border dispute that has resulted in fighting as recently as April 2012. In recent years conflict has occurred in the area surrounding the Preah Vihear temple (known as Khao Pra Viharn temple in Thailand) located in the border region between Sisaket Province in Thailand and Preah Vihear Province in Cambodia. Conflict has also occurred in the area surrounding the Ta Kwai (known as Ta Krabei temple in Cambodia) and Ta Muen Thom (known as Ta Moan temple in Cambodia) temples along the Thai-Cambodia border in Surin province (most recently in early 2011). Fatalities were reported. Tourist attractions and border crossing points may be closed with little or no notice. There is a risk in border areas from landmines and unexploded military ordnance.
Thai-Myanmar border: There have been instances of fighting and banditry along some sections of the Thai-Myanmar border. This includes fighting between the Myanmar military and armed Myanmar ethnic opposition groups as well as clashes between Thai security forces and armed criminal groups, such as drug traffickers. Armed clashes between Myanmar military and armed opposition groups inside Myanmar may cause border closures, occasional incidents of explosives falling inside Thailand and an influx of displaced civilians. In the event of unrest in Myanmar, you should monitor media reports and follow the instructions of Thai officials.
Travellers who have attempted illegal border crossings have been detained and deported from Thailand. You should also be aware that bandits may target foreigners travelling through national parks located near border regions.
Sexual assault, food and drink spiking, assault and robbery against foreigners occurs in Thailand, including around popular backpacker and tourist destinations such as Khao San Road in Bangkok, the night-time entertainment zones in Bangkok, Pattaya and Phuket, and during Full Moon and other parties on Koh Phangan. See our brochure Sexual Assault Overseas for further information on how to avoid becoming a victim of sexual assault and the assistance available to victims.
The Full Moon and other parties at Koh Phangan and in other locations regularly result in reports of sexual assaults, deaths, arrests, robbery, injuries, drug abuse and lost travel documents. Travellers contemplating attendance should carefully consider personal safety issues and take appropriate precautions. See our Partying Overseas page for advice on the risks you may face when attending Full Moon and similar parties and tips on how to avoid becoming a victim.
Australians planning to celebrate “Schoolies Week” in Thailand should be aware that in the past Australians have had serious accidents and injuries as a result of consumption of alcohol and drugs, and have been arrested for theft and/or possession of narcotics. You should behave in a responsible and culturally sensitive manner. The costs for medical services can be very expensive and penalties for breaking the law in Thailand can be severe. These penalties apply to minors, who are subject to Thai juvenile judicial processes, including detention in a juvenile prison.
Due to the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, victims of violent crime, especially rape, are strongly encouraged to seek immediate medical assistance.
Petty crime is common. Money and passports have been stolen from rooms (particularly in cheaper hotels and hostels) and from bags on public transport. Items have been removed from luggage stored below buses and travellers have reported being drugged and robbed during bus journeys. Tourists have also been robbed after the bags they were carrying were snatched by thieves on motorcycles or were sliced open by razor blades. Beware of pickpockets in crowded markets and shopping streets. When visiting these areas leave credit and other cards and licences that are not required locked in a hotel safe or be extra vigilant when carrying these items.
Australian travellers continue to report harassment and threats of violence by jet ski operators on tourist beaches, particularly in Phuket, Pattaya, Koh Samui and Koh Phangan. Many travellers have reported that, after returning hired jet skis, they have been confronted by gangs claiming that the tourist damaged the jet ski. There have been reported instances of such gangs threatening violence, including at knifepoint, if a large sum of money in compensation for the alleged damage is not paid. Australians hiring jet skis should check the jet ski for damage, including underneath, before riding and take photographs of the jet ski that may be helpful in the resolution of disputes.
Operators may request your passport as a deposit or guarantee before hiring jet skis or motorbikes. If there is a dispute about damage to a rented jet ski or motorbike, rental operators may try to keep your passport until they receive compensation. Passports are valuable documents that should be appropriately protected. We recommend that Australians do not provide passports as deposits or guarantees.
Credit card and ATM fraud involving 'skimming' machines, which can store card data, can occur. You should monitor transaction statements and only use ATMs in secure locations such as banks, shops or malls.
Many travellers fall victim to scams after accepting offers from people recommending or offering various goods or services, particularly when shopping for jewellery and gems. The Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT) can provide official advice on purchasing jewellery and gems.
There have been reports that shop attendants at duty-free shops in international airports have added extra items to bags at checkout counters or not charged the full amount for items purchased. Travellers have then been accused of shoplifting after leaving the shop. There are substantial penalties for shoplifting including fines and imprisonment. You should ensure that all items placed in bags at checkouts are listed on receipts.
Travellers have also lost large sums of money through bogus investment, property rental and time share schemes, card game scams and other fraudulent activity. There have been complaints from Australians who have lost large sums of money from property purchases and in time share schemes in Phuket. Australians should be particularly careful and thoroughly research any company offering properties for sale or time share arrangements before entering into an agreement.
Money and valuables
Before you go, organise a variety of ways to access your money overseas, such as credit cards, travellers' cheques, cash, debit cards or cash cards. Australian currency and travellers' cheques are not accepted in many countries. Consult your bank about the most appropriate currency to carry and whether your ATM card will work overseas.
If you are travelling on a restricted budget, it is important to ensure you have access to enough money to cover unexpected costs. For example, you may have a problem that prevents you taking your scheduled flight. Restrictions, such as tickets being non-refundable or non-transferable, apply to most discounted airfares, or you may need to pay a substantial fee to change your travel dates. If you lose your passport you will be delayed and you will have to pay for a replacement. If you fall ill and need medical treatment, even if you have insurance, it is likely you will need to cover some costs yourself. At the minimum, it is essential to have access to enough money to cover a replacement ticket home and several nights hotel accommodation, plus extra money for unexpected emergencies.
Make two photocopies of valuables such as your passport, tickets, visas and travellers' cheques. Keep one copy with you in a separate place to the original and leave another copy with someone at home.
While travelling, don't carry too much cash and remember that expensive watches, jewellery and cameras may be tempting targets for thieves.
As a sensible precaution against luggage tampering, including theft, lock your luggage. Information on luggage safety is available from Australia's Civil Aviation Safety Authority.
Your passport is a valuable document that is attractive to criminals who may try to use your identity to commit crimes. It should always be kept in a safe place. You are required by Australian law to report a lost or stolen passport. If your passport is lost or stolen overseas, report it online or contact the nearest Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate as soon as possible.
You are required to pay an additional fee to have a lost or stolen passport replaced. In some cases, the Government may also restrict the length of validity or type of replacement passports.
Suvarnabhumi International Airport, also known as the New Bangkok International Airport, is located in Samut Prakan Province, 25 kilometres east of Bangkok. Suvarnabhumi International Airport is the main airport for international and domestic flights for Bangkok. Don Mueang airport, located 24 kilometres north of Bangkok, which is being used for some domestic flights, resumed international flights for several airlines in October 2012. Australians should be aware of the airport they will use and ensure there is sufficient transit time if arriving and departing from different airports. The distance between these two airports is 47 kilometers and the driving time can be up to two hours depending on traffic conditions. Details of airports in Thailand can be found at the website of Airports of Thailand.
Service counters at Suvarnabhumi and Don Mueang International Airports may provide information on transport to the city and hotels.
You should be alert to arrangements where taxi or tuk tuk (motorised three-wheel vehicles) drivers take passengers to shops where the driver will receive a commission. Passengers may be charged higher prices for goods or sold sub-standard goods or worthless gems. You should be alert to your own safety at all times when using taxis and tuk tuks and never put yourself in danger by physically confronting drivers. Violent or serious incidents involving taxis and tuk tuks should be reported to the local police. Secure your possessions while travelling in tuk tuks or on motorcycles as thefts by riders on passing motorcycles can occur.
In Phuket and some other parts of Thailand, taxis and tuk tuks are not metered and fares may be set according to distance travelled or negotiated between driver and passenger. The Embassy continues to receive reports of tuk tuk drivers in Phuket becoming aggressive and sometimes violent during disagreements over fares or routes.
In Phuket, syndicates of taxi and tuk tuk drivers may operate in particular areas. The Embassy has received reports of drivers resisting, sometimes violently, other drivers who try to pick up passengers in their area.
Motorcycle and other road accidents are very common in Thailand, including in resort areas such as Phuket, Pattaya and Koh Samui. Under Thai law, motorcycle riders and passengers are required to wear helmets, but they are often not provided by hire companies or motorcycle taxis. For further advice on road safety, see our page on road travel.
To drive a car or ride a motorcycle in Thailand, you need a valid driver licence of the correct class. Be aware some vehicle rental companies will try to tell you otherwise. We recommend that you carry an International Driving Permit (IDP) in addition to your Australian driver licence.
If you intend to hire cars, motorcycles, jet skis or any other motorised vehicle, talk to your travel insurer to check if it is covered by your insurance policy and seek advice on any restrictions that may apply (such as insurance cover if you are not licensed to ride a motorcycle in Australia).
The Thai Department of Tourism provides useful advice on renting jet skis at the Tourism Authority website.
There have been a number of serious accidents involving jet skis and motorcycles in Thailand. Foreigners are regularly detained and arrested by police following jet ski and motorcycle accidents until compensation, often thousands of dollars, can be negotiated between parties. The embassy is not able to assist in these negotiations and can only provide a list of lawyers. Many vehicle hire companies do not have insurance and any damage, loss, or costs associated with injuries to third parties will be your responsibility to negotiate or pay. In addition to checking that your travel insurance covers hospital and other costs associated with motorbike, jet ski or other vehicle accidents, also ensure that the hiring company holds comprehensive, including third-party, insurance for the vehicle you are hiring. We recommend that Australians do not provide passports as deposits or guarantees.
Australians have reported cases where hire companies have demanded large amounts of compensation for pre-existing damage to motorbikes. There have also been reports claiming that hire companies have arranged for motorbikes to be stolen from the hirer, and forcing them to pay thousands of dollars in compensation, including the value of a new motorbike plus lost earnings.
There have been instances of train derailments in recent years. Some have resulted in deaths and injuries.
The safety standards you might expect of transport and tour operators, including adventure activities (e.g. scuba diving, elephant safaris and bungee jumping), are not always met. Sufficient safety equipment may not be provided and recommended maintenance standards and safety precautions may not be observed. If you intend participating in these activities, you should talk to your travel insurer to check if the activity is covered by your insurance policy.
Ferry travel in Thailand can be dangerous, as vessel passenger limits are not always observed or sufficient life jackets provided. Australians have been killed and injured in ferry and boat accidents in coastal areas, including near Samui Island. You should ensure that any vessel you intend to board is carrying appropriate safety equipment and that life jackets are provided and are worn. You should avoid travelling in ferries and speedboats after dark. Australians attending full moon parties should try to secure accommodation on the island where the party is being held to avoid the need to travel by boat at night. See the Partying Overseas page for further information on travel issues.
You should take particular care when swimming off coastal areas, especially during monsoon season (November-March in Koh Samui and the south-east of the Thai peninsula and May-October in the rest of Thailand, including Phuket). Severe undercurrents (rips) are common in coastal areas and a number of foreign tourists have drowned, including in popular resort areas such as Phuket, Pattaya and Koh Samui. Lifeguard services are rarely available. In some locations, red flags are displayed to warn swimmers not to enter the water and these warnings should be heeded. If in any doubt check with local authorities before swimming. You should never swim after dark or after consuming alcohol.
It is common for railings on stairs and balconies to be lower than the Australian standard height or to be made of materials that are not strong. In some cases railings are non-existent. There have been cases of Australians being injured or dying after falling from stairs or balconies. You should take care when using stairs and balconies and when supervising children in these areas.
Please refer to our air travel page.
When you are in Thailand, be aware that local laws and penalties, including ones that may appear harsh by Australian standards, do apply to you. Australians have been arrested and sentenced to jail for making false statements to police. If you are arrested or jailed, the Australian Government will do what it can to help you but we can't get you out of trouble or out of jail.
Information on what Australian consular officers can and cannot do to help Australians in trouble overseas is available from the Consular Services Charter.
Foreigners are required to carry identification at all times.
In Thailand, penalties for drug offences are severe and include the death penalty. The possession of even small quantities of "soft drugs" for recreational purposes can result in lengthy jail sentences and deportation.
The death penalty can also be imposed for murder, rape, crimes against the state including treason, and certain offences against the monarchy.
Lengthy prison terms up to 15 years can be imposed for insulting the monarchy or defacing images of the monarch and his family. This includes destroying bank notes bearing the King's image.
Almost all forms of gambling (other than at a few major race tracks) are illegal in Thailand. There can be heavy penalties for illegal gambling of any form.
Penalties for shoplifting, including at airports, include heavy fines and detention.
People found to be making false statements to police may be prosecuted and imprisoned or fined. Reporting any crime that did not actually take place or lying about the circumstances of an incident may result in your arrest and imprisonment.
Some Australian criminal laws, such as those relating to money laundering, bribery of foreign public officials, terrorism, child pornography, and child sex tourism, apply to Australian overseas. Australians who commit these offences while overseas may be prosecuted in Australia.
Australian authorities are committed to combating sexual exploitation of children by Australians overseas. Australians may be prosecuted at home under Australian child sex tourism and child pornography laws. These laws provide severe penalties of up to 25 years imprisonment for Australians who engage in child sexual exploitation while outside of Australia. A number of Australians have been arrested in Thailand for these crimes.
Deliberate transgressions of local customs, such as showing the soles of your feet or touching the top of a person's head, are likely to cause grave offence. You should respect local customs and take care not to offend. If in doubt, seek local advice.
Information for dual nationals
Australia/Thai dual nationals may be liable for conscription. Australian/Thai dual nationals who are unsure of their military obligation can consult the nearest embassy of Thailand.
Our Dual Nationals brochure provides further information for dual nationals.
We strongly recommend that you take out comprehensive travel insurance that will cover any overseas medical costs, including medical evacuation, before you depart. Confirm that your insurance covers you for the whole time you'll be away and check what circumstances and activities are not included in your policy. Remember, regardless of how healthy and fit you are, if you can't afford travel insurance, you can't afford to travel. The Australian Government will not pay for a traveller's medical expenses overseas or medical evacuation costs.
It is important to consider your physical and mental health before travelling overseas. We encourage you to consider having vaccinations before you travel. At least eight weeks before you depart, make an appointment with your doctor or travel clinic for a basic health check-up, and to discuss your travel plans and any implications for your health, particularly if you have an existing medical condition. The World Health Organization (WHO) provides information for travellers and our health page also provides useful information for travellers on staying healthy.
If you have a mental health condition, you, your family and any travelling companions should also assess the possible consequences of the challenges and stressors that can arise whilst travelling overseas. The experience of different environments, unfamiliar customs, language barriers, social isolation, and general uncertainty are examples of risk factors that may increase stress and anxiety. Increased stress may exacerbate existing mental health conditions and possibly trigger unfamiliar mental health issues. Mental health facilities and treatment approaches may be very different to those in Australia. Australians with mental health concerns should carefully consider the possible consequences of travelling on their wellbeing.
The standard of medical facilities throughout Thailand varies. While private hospitals with international standard facilities can be found in major cities, services can be limited elsewhere. Private hospitals generally require confirmation of insurance or a guarantee of payment before admitting a patient. Costs can be very expensive. Generally, serious illnesses and accidents can be treated at private or public hospitals in Bangkok and other large cities. However, medical evacuation to a destination with the required facilities may be necessary in some cases at considerable cost.
Decompression chambers are located near popular dive sites in Koh Tao, Koh Samui, Phuket, Pattaya and Bangkok.
Stings from jellyfish and other marine animals can be fatal. You should seek advice from local authorities, your tour operator or hotel regarding seasonal bathing conditions, recommended precautions and other potential dangers.
"Medical tourism", including for cosmetic and sex-change operations, is common. Australians should ensure that they are not lured to discount or uncertified medical establishments where standards can be lacking, resulting in serious and possibly life-threatening complications. Hospitals and clinics have been known to refuse compensation to patients not satisfied with the results of cosmetic surgery.
Malaria exists throughout the year in rural areas of the country, particularly near the borders with Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar. Thai authorities have reported an increase in dengue fever cases and a number of deaths. There is no vaccination or specific treatment available for dengue fever. Anyone suffering from a fever should seek medical advice. Other insect-borne diseases (including chikungunya fever, Japanese encephalitis and filariasis) also occur in many areas. We encourage you to: consider having vaccinations before travelling and to consider taking prophylaxis against malaria where necessary. We also encourage you to take measures to avoid insect bites including using an insect repellent at all times and wearing long, loose fitting, light coloured clothing and ensuring your accommodation is mosquito proof.
The rate of HIV/AIDS infection in Thailand is high. You should exercise appropriate precautions if engaging in activities that expose you to risk of infection.
Water-borne, food-borne, parasitic and other infectious diseases (including tuberculosis, cholera, hepatitis, leptospirosis, typhoid, and rabies) are prevalent with outbreaks occurring from time to time. We advise you to boil all drinking water or drink bottled water, avoid ice cubes and raw and undercooked food, and avoid unpasteurised dairy products. Seek medical advice if you have a fever or are suffering from diarrhoea.
Avoid temporary 'black henna' tattoos as they often contain a dye which can cause serious skin reactions. For further information, see the Australasian College of Dermatologists' website.
Smoke haze: There is smoke haze across some parts of north and north-east Thailand usually during March to April. The high levels of air pollution may aggravate bronchial, sinus or asthma conditions. Keep up-to-date with advice of local authorities and seek medical advice on appropriate precautions. Regular air quality reports are available from the Meteorological Service Singapore.
Avian influenza: The World Health Organization (WHO) has confirmed human deaths from avian influenza in Thailand. See our health page for further information.
Where to Get Help
In Thailand, you can obtain consular assistance from the:
Australian Embassy, Bangkok
37 South Sathorn Road,
Telephone: (66 2) 344 6300
Facsimile: (66 2) 344 6310
In Phuket, Chiang Mai and Koh Samui you can obtain limited consular assistance from:
Australian Consulate, Phuket
The Chava Resort
113 Moo 3
Telephone: (66 76) 372 600
Facsimile: (66 76) 372 606
Australian Consulate, Chiang Mai
Jinda Charoen Konsong
236 Chiangmai-Doi Saket Road
Chiang Mai, THAILAND
Telephone: (66 53) 492 480
Facsimile: (66 53) 492 426
Other Australian Consulate
Surat Thani, THAILAND
Contact through the Australian Embassy, Bangkok
If you are travelling to Thailand, whatever the reason and however long you'll be there, we encourage you to register with the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. You can register online or in person at any Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate. The information you provide will help us to contact you in an emergency - whether it is a natural disaster, civil disturbance or a family issue.
In a consular emergency if you are unable to contact the Embassy, you can contact the 24-hour Consular Emergency Centre on +61 2 6261 3305 or 1300 555 135 within Australia.
In Australia, the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade in Canberra may be contacted on (02) 6261 3305.
Natural disasters, severe weather and climate
Severe storms and widespread seasonal flooding, including flash floods, can occur without warning in Thailand, particularly during the local wet season from May to October, but can occur at other times. Disruptions to transport (air, sea, road and rail), electricity and communications are likely during severe weather events and you should check with your tour operator for the latest information on disruptions. You should follow the instructions of local disaster management authorities and monitor media and weather reports. You should not enter areas affected by flooding or landslides without seeking advice from local authorities.
The Mekong River Commission website contains information on flood levels for the Mekong River. Travellers should follow instructions from local authorities, monitor media and weather reports, and check with tour operators before travelling to affected areas.
On 24 March 2011, an earthquake measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale occurred in northern Myanmar, 90 kilometres from Chiang Rai. The earthquake resulted in one fatality and some damage to buildings in Thailand. On 11 April 2012 an earthquake measuring 8.2 on the Richter scale that occurred near Sumatra in Indonesia was felt in many parts of Thailand, including Phuket and surrounding provinces. This earthquake generated a tsunami alert in some coastal areas of Thailand. On 16 April 2012, an earthquake measuring 4.3 on the Richter scale occurred in Phuket, causing some minor damage to homes near the epicentre. In the event of an earthquake you should follow the advice of local authorities and monitor the media for the latest information. For the latest earthquake information, visit the Thai Meteorological Department website.
All oceanic regions of the world can experience tsunamis, but in the Indian and Pacific Oceans there is a more frequent occurrence of large, destructive tsunamis because of the many large earthquakes along major tectonic plate boundaries and ocean trenches. See the Tsunami Awareness brochure.
Information on natural disasters can be obtained from the Humanitarian Early Warning Service. If a natural disaster occurs, follow the advice of local authorities.
Australians are advised to respect wildlife laws and to maintain a safe and legal distance when observing wildlife, including marine animals and birds. You should only use reputable and professional guides or tour operators and closely follow park regulations and wardens' advice.
For general information and tips on travelling with children see our Travelling with Children page.